An F-Secure security response analysts has discovered the existence of a hack-tool / app called USB Cleaver that can do just that.
Once installed and launched, the app first asks the user to download additional files that it then stashes in the /mnt/sdcard/usbcleaver/system folder.
These files are utilities whose function is to retrieve specified pieces of information from a Windows machine:
The data that the app / utilities collect is stored on the device (/mnt/sdcard/usbcleaver/logs) and the attacker can review it by clicking on the "Log Files" button.
"Fortunately, USBCleaver's Windows-infecting routine can be blocked by a simple measure that's been standard security advice for the last couple years: disabling the Autorun by default (this is already standard on Windows 7 machines)," the analysts pointed out.
"An additional mitigating factor is that most older Windows systems need to have mobile drivers manually installed in order for this attack to work."
Also, F-Secure's AV solutions detects as malicious most of the downloaded utilities already.